After gaining independence from Portugal in , Angola was plunged into a year civil war. Central Intelligence Agency. Pateman, Roy. Roque, Paula Cristina. Following independence in , the Special Branch structure was maintained as the only intelligence body under successive Botswanan government until, in , the creation of the new Botswanan Defense Force BDF saw the birth of Botswanan military intelligence.
Intelligence (public sector)
BDF intelligence units were tasked with conducting operations relating to external security threats, primarily targeting neighboring nations such as apartheid South Africa, who were employing aggravation and harassment tactics against Botswanan military personnel along the southern border. Special branch continued functioning alongside BDF, focusing on domestic, nonmilitary and policing operations, until when the Security Intelligence Services SIS were established.
The SIS was used for domestic policing operations in much the same way as the SB, it was in essence a change in name only. Consequently, senior government mandarins began plans to reform and restructure the intelligence structure. Since , a series of execution style killings have been attributed to the DISS, prompting suggestions that the agency is being used to target political opposition to the president.
More recently, DISS personnel have been embroiled in controversies regarding press censorship after reports claimed agents had harassed journalists investigating corruptions allegations against President Khama, threatening them with extreme violence and imprisonment. In Burundi gained its independence from Belgium. Over the next forty years the country experienced multiple forceful regime changes, assassinations and political violence. The SNR operates entirely beyond the law, often employing torture, murder and illegal imprisonment to suppress political opposition.
The SNR answers directly to the President, and without oversight from other government bodies. Africa, Sandy, and Johnny Kwadjo. Ruteere, Mutuma.
Thom, William G. SEDOC identified and reported on dissidents and political opposition to the presidency. This also involved a rigorous program of press censorship entailing the detention and summary trial of creators or distributors of anti-government propaganda. For many years Cameroon operated under a one-party system that demanded the SEDOC continue to round up and detain enemies of the government, often handing prisoners over to the Brigades Mixtes Mobiles BMM , infamous for their use of torture to extract confessions.
There is also likely to have been unofficial, transitory intelligence networks created in the south of the country, where fighting during the civil war was particularly fierce. Miles, William FS. After independence in , the Congolese government established a series of small police units tasked with maintaining order and state security.
The National Service for Intelligence and Protection SNIP was established in to perform tasks relating to external and internal intelligence operations. The SNIP was not subject to any authority other than the president with whom it communicated directly. SNIP operated without legal restriction to suppress political opposition to Mobutu in both the Congo and abroad, monitoring and infiltrating exiled anti-Mobutu groups in Africa and Europe.
It is likely that Mobutu had many more unofficial intelligence networks used to spy on political opposition within the DRC state structures and military. Cawthra, Gavin, and Robin Luckham, eds.
Ex-British Intelligence Chief Attacks Aspiring Prime Ministers - EU Today
Zed Books, The PSO was responsible for both external and internal intelligence gathering, counterintelligence actions, surveillance and direct intervention. However, it is unclear to what extent Ethiopian intelligence bodies were party to or directly involved in the violence. However, the WikiLeaks dump of US Embassy Cables in , provided a brief insight into the work of National Intelligence and Security Service NISS chief Getachew Assefa in which he describes a relatively unchanged set of geo political and security priorities - such as the monitoring and investigation of actors in Eritrea, Sudan and Somalia.
Aalen, Lovise. Fisher, Jonathan, and David M.
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