This compound is called benzene, which is a highly flammable liquid that contributes to the production of many types of plastic including rubber as well as serving as an additive in gasoline. The structure of benzene is a hexagonal ring consisting of alternating single and double bonds between the carbon atoms. The formula for benzene is C 6 H 6. Benzene is classified as an aromatic hydrocarbon, and looks like this:.
Notice that here, the carbon chain is a circle ring and that the double bonds alternate with the single bonds. This means that more than one structure is possible for benzene—both of them are pictured here. Isomerism results when two or more molecules that have the same molecular makeup have different structures and orientations.
There are two basic types of isomers: structural isomers and stereoisomers. Structural isomers indicate a differing placement in atoms oriented around the central atom. Stereoisomers indicate a rotation or an inversion of the molecule—for example, stereoisomers can be either cis-trans isomers geometric isomers or can be "mirror images," which are called optical isomers. The chart below shows the different types of isomers and gives examples of each.
Knowing how to determine isomers is important in showing the correct configuration of organic compounds. As you can see, many compounds have the same makeup number of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and so on but they are arranged differently, which affects not only their names as a name is what scientists use to indicate structure but also their configuration, which is what you would see when looking at the structure. Alcohols are compounds containing the hydroxyl group, which is —OH. The most simple alcohol is methyl alcohol.
The formula for methyl alcohol also known as methanol is CH 3 OH. The structure for methanol is as follows:. This is the most simple of the alcohols, since it contains only one carbon atom that is singularly bonded to four other atoms three hydrogen, one oxygen. We can tell that this is an alcohol by locating the hydroxyl group —OH at one end of the compound.
All alcohols are identifiable by looking for this hydroxyl group as part of the atomic structure. Obviously, there are many more different alcohols each with a unique configuration that we are not going to list here. However, these are some of the most common ones, and this will help you recognize future alcohols by knowing their structure especially the hydroxyl group s that stem from a carbon atom.
Combustion of a hydrocarbon involves, quite simply, a reaction between a hydrocarbon and oxygen, resulting in the production of CO 2 gas and H 2 O water. These reactions are easily spotted, because they will always involve the same reactants and products with varying coefficients and subscripts.
The general format for a combustion reaction is:. It can also be noted that energy, released as heat, is a product of this reaction—sometimes heat is emitted as light, which can be seen as a glowing appearance, or as a flame. Many combustions do not reach completion because there is not enough O 2 to complete the reaction. In the case of an incomplete combustion, there is excess hydrocarbon because all the oxygen will be used.
These reactions typically burn with a "smoky" flame. Under ideal conditions and for homework problems it is generally assumed that the reaction reaches completion. This means that there is an excess of O 2 gas. These reactions typically burn with a "clean" flame—there is no smoke produced. Most of the time, you will be asked to do one of these two problems when dealing with combustion of hydrocarbons. Introduction to Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of "living" things—not in the same way that biology is the study of life.
Basic Vocabulary alkane : a chemical compound made up of only hydrogen and carbon. Current trends in organic chemistry are chiral synthesis, green chemistry, microwave chemistry and fullerene chemistry. Reference Terms. It is a specific discipline within the subject of chemistry.
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