All the sensors can be used for continuous monitoring of movement, vital parameters like heart rate, ECG, Blood pressure etc. There are vast monitoring systems are being used already based on wired connections. Any wired connection in a monitoring system can be problematic and awkward worn by a person and could restrict his mobility.
So, WBAN can be a very effective solution in this area especially in a healthcare system where a patient needs to be monitored continuously and requires mobility. The next section is the coordination node where the entire sensor nodes will directly connected with a coordination node known as Central Control Unit CCU. CCU takes the responsibility to collect information from the sensor nodes and to deliver to the next section.
For monitoring human body activities. Figure 1. WBAN Architecture. Except Cellular network standard all of these technologies are commonly available for short distance communication. The third section is the WBAN communication which will act as a gateway to transfer the information to the destination. A router or a PC can be a remote node to communicate via email or other service using Ethernet which is shown in Figure 2.
The last section will be a control center consists of end node devices such as Mobile phone for message, PC for monitoring and email and server for storing the information in the database. Before you begin to format your paper, first write and save the content as a separate text file. Keep your text and graphic files separate until after the text has been formatted and styled. Do not use hard tabs, and limit use of hard returns to only one return at the end of a paragraph.
Do not add any kind of pagination anywhere in the paper. Figure 2. Wearibility: To achieve non-invasive and unobtrusive continuous monitoring Wearibility is a very important issue. These sensors must be lightweight and small. Size and weight of sensors are mainly determined by the size and weight of batteries .
So the designer should target a reliable communication technique which will ensure uninterrupted communication and optimal throughput. A careful trade-off between communication and computation is very crucial for a reliable system design. Security: Another important issue is the security of the network. All the wireless medical sensors must meet the requirements of privacy and should ensure data integrity and authentication. Standards governing that interaction of wireless medical sensors will help vendor competition and eventually lead to more accessible systems .
Based on the operating environments the monitoring sensors can be classified into two types. Wearable sensor devices allow the individual to follow closely the changes in her or his functions and in the surrounding environment and provide feedback for maintaining optimal and instant status. For example ECG, EEG, Blood pressure sensor can be used to monitor a critical patient, GPS sensor can be used to locate an area and different types of sensor that can be used to measure the distance, temperature, movement etc.
To measure heath parameters, implantable sensors are planted in close contact with the skin, and sometimes even inside the human body. Figure 3 focuses on the sensor nodes with wireless capabilities. Figure 3. Sensor nodes in WBAN.
Normal traffic is the data traffic which is used to monitor the normal condition of a person without any criticality and on demand events. Emergency traffic is initiated by nodes when they exceed a predefined threshold or in any emergency situation.
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Such type of traffic is totally unpredictable. On-demand traffic is initiated by the authorized personnel like doctor or consultant to acquire certain information for diagnostic purpose . Figure 4 shows the work flow chart of WBAN. In the flowchart workflow is divided into two sections.
First section is the WBAN where all the sensors devices will collect data and process them to the control center. While processing if any error occurs then it will read data again from the sensor and will forward for processing. The control center will send the data to the desired location.
If any problem occurs then it will generate an error where resend option should be needed again. As WBAN is a short range wireless networks so different types of wireless short range technologies can be involved in different stages. Bluetooth is an IEEE Bluetooth technology  was designed as a short range wireless communication standard, anticipated to form a network with security and low power consumption. A typical Bluetooth network forms a Piconet where a Bluetooth device works as a master and another seven Bluetooth devices.
Figure 4. Working flowchart of WBAN. Another type of Bluetooth network can be formed with more than one Piconet known as Scatternet. In Scatternet a node of a Piconet can be a master or a slave joins as a slave in another Piconet. Figure 5 shows how a Piconet and Scatternet are formed using Bluetooth nodes. Though, the basic Bluetooth protocol does not support relaying but it is possible to join together numerous Piconet into a large Scatternet, and to expand the physical size of the network beyond Bluetooth's limited range using this method .
Bluetooth devices operate in the 2. It is classified with three classes of devices with coverage ranging from 1 to m and different transmission powers ranging from 1 mW to mW with 3 Mbps data rate . A very key feature of Bluetooth is that all the Bluetooth devices can communication with each other in NLOS condition.
One of the biggest advantages of ZigBee network is its low power consumption. Figure 6 shows a typical ZigBee network topology which consist of three kinds of devices or nodes such as coordinator, router and end device.
One coordinator exists in every ZigBee network. It starts the network and handles management functions as well as data routing functions.
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End devices are devices that are battery-powered due to their low-power consumption. They are in standby mode most of the time and become active to collect and transmit data. Figure 5. Bluetooth network. Figure 6. ZigBee network.
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Devices such as sensors are configured as end devices. They are connected to the network through the routers. Routers help to carry data across multi-hop ZigBee networks. In some cases ZigBee network topology are formed without routers when the network is point to point and point to multipoint.
ZigBee is aimed at RF applications that require low data rate, long battery lifespan and secure networking. Through the standby mode, ZigBee enabled devices can be operational for several years . ZigBee-based wireless devices operate in three different frequency bands such as MHz, MHz, and 2. But, it can be very much suitable for personal use like assisted living, health monitoring, sports, environment etc.
Generally WiFi technology comes with four standards Wi-Fi permits users to transfer data at broadband speed when connected to an access point AP or in ad hoc mode. Figure 7 shows a WiFi network where WiFi sensor nodes and users can transfer data using internet by standard WiFi router.
WiFi is preferably suitable for large amount of data transfers with high-speed wireless connectivity that allows videoconferencing, voice calls and video streaming. An important advantage is that all smart phones, tablets and laptops have Wi-Fi integrated; however the main disadvantage of this technology is high energy consumption .
Technologies Use to Build a PAN:
IEEE This standard supports communication inside and outside of human body which can be used for different medical and non medical applications such as e-Healthcare monitoring, sports, environment etc. Applications and technology for wireless personal area networks WPANs continues to expand and evolve, respectively.
They address a broad and growing range of utilitarian applications not addressed by other wireless technologies.
WPANs provide communications over very short distances and serve a plethora of personal, business and industrial applications. This market study addresses IEEE It examines the network architecture of these standards, their benefits and limitations and applications. The development of a nationwide broadband network is a hot priority among the four largest U.
This study addresses the driving force for broadband wireless access BWA , carrier involvement in developing a BWA network and possible service limitations. It addresses the four major U. It also addresses the timeline for nationwide network coverage within their individual networks. The report addresses Sprint's position in the carrier market, its plans with respect to WiMAX service and its plans to remain competitive with the other major carriers.
The study also addresses the Asian telecommunications markets, including Australia and China.
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